Fort Ticonderoga’s Living History Event on November 12th Highlights British Withdrawal in 1777: Explore the Complex Story from the British, German, Loyalist, and Native Perspectives


Join the German soldiers, who formed the core of the British garrison at Ticonderoga in late 1777, as they prepare to evacuate Ticonderoga, the “Gibraltar of the North” during an exciting living history event Saturday, November 12th from 10am – 4pm.

Be part of the action as Fort Ticonderoga portrays the British soldiers, loyalists, refugee families, and native allies at Ticonderoga in November 1777 who were cut off from the rest of the British line, short of food and supplies, and facing the inevitable decision to withdraw back to Canada following the surrender of British forces at Saratoga.

Programs and demonstrations highlight the weapons, tactics, and trades of the British garrison in the late fall of 1777. Tours will explore the decision to evacuate the soldiers back to Canada and the choice to destroy Ticonderoga in their wake to leave nov-12nothing useful for Continental forces.

A musket demonstration at 11am will provide military perspective from the loyalist forces. These soldiers, recruited from loyalist refugees, were the eyes and ears of British army along Lake Champlain. Whether New England fowlers, native trade guns, or old French Muskets, see the arms of the loyalists and discuss fighting for King and country without a home.

Another musket demonstration at 12:30pm will interpret the German Brunswick soldiers. German soldiers made up nearly half of the British Army in 1777.  Far from stiff and rigid, see how Brunswick soldiers used their muskets in defense and attack.  Thrill at the flash of weaponry and learn how European methods of fighting were adapted to the landscape of North America.

The event will also feature lectures on the myths of the “Hessians” in the American Revolution and explore the story of the soldiers from the Duchy of Brunswick who served at Ticonderoga.

Admission to the event is $10 for the general public and free to Fort Ticonderoga Members, Ambassador Pass Holders, and children age four and under. For the full event schedule, visit or call (518) 585-2821.

America’s Fort is a registered trademark of the Fort Ticonderoga Association.

Photo: The “Now Left to their own Defense.” German and British Soldiers Leave Ticonderoga-Living History Event takes place on Saturday, November 12, 2016. Photo Credit: Fort Ticonderoga.

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Fort Ticonderoga presents Sixth Annual “Material Matters: It’s in the Details” Weekend Seminar

material-mattersFort Ticonderoga will host its Sixth Annual “Material Matters: It’s in the Details” Seminar Saturday November 5 and Sunday November 6. This weekend event focuses on the material culture of the 18th century and is intended for collectors, re-enactors, and people with a general interest in learning more about objects of the 18th century and what they can tell us about history.

A panel of material culture experts comes to Fort Ticonderoga for the weekend to share their knowledge of 18th-century material culture in a series of presentations. Designed for those who want a deeper understanding of the everyday objects that help tell the story of life and the contests for control of North America during the 18th century, the weekend’s informal approach enables attendees to interact with presenters and provides an opportunity to examine 18th-century objects up close.

Seminar topics include: “Heavy Metal History and Preservation” with Chris Sabick; “Faste Coloniaux: Military Pomp, Domestic Display, and State Power in the French Atlantic Empire” with Philippe Halbert; “Anglo-American Weaving Techniques of 18th-Century New England” with Justin Squizzero; and “Army Wives and Refugees: The Material Lives of Women with Burgoyne’s Army in 177” with Eliza West.

The Saturday session concludes with a lecture and concert that showcases the relationship between functional military tunes and songs, dances, and other pieces enjoyed by the English speaking world. “The Harmony of War: Popular Music Adapted for Military use During the American Revolution” will be performed by; Erick Lichack (fife, drum, and harpsichord), Eliza Vincz (vocals), and Joshua Mason (fife and classical flute).

“Material Matters” takes place in the Mars Education Center at Fort Ticonderoga and is open by pre-registration only. The cost is $145 (Members of Fort Ticonderoga receive a discount, as do students and young museum professionals). Registration forms can be downloaded by visiting A printed copy is also available upon request by contacting Rich Strum, Director of Education, at (518) 585-6370.

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Explore Fort Ticonderoga’s Heroic Corn Maze at Night! October 28 & 29, 2016

maze-by-moonlight-resizedDiscover fall fun of historic proportions at Fort Ticonderoga’s Maze by Moonlight Friday, October 28 and Saturday, October 29. Navigate through the six-acres of towering corn stalks at night! Visitors will find clues connected to Fort Ticonderoga’s story as they make their way through the maze in the blanket of darkness. Will Fort Ticonderoga’s unexplained and ghostly past find you in the maze? Bring your flashlight and find out!

The maze, with a NEW 2016 design, featuring the shape of Fort Ticonderoga and the year 1777, is divided into two phases, giving guests the chance to gain confidence in the smaller maze before tackling the main maze. The average journey will take from twenty minutes for the first phase and up to an hour for the second phase.flashlight-nights

The cost of this fun fall nighttime experience is $10 per person; tickets are available at the door. Members of Fort Ticonderoga, Ticonderoga Ambassador Pass Holders, and children age four and under are admitted free of charge. The admissions booth and the corn maze open at 7:00 pm; last ticket sold at 9:00 pm, the maze will close at 10:00 pm.

For more information, call (518) 585-2821 or visit

America’s Fort is a registered trademark of the Fort Ticonderoga Association.

Photo: Fort Ticonderoga’s Maze by Moonlight takes place on October 28 & 29, 2016. Photo credit: Fort Ticonderoga.

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Fort Ticonderoga joins forces with the Girl Scouts of Northeastern New York to host Girl Scout Day on Saturday, October 15th from 9:30am-5:00pm. The scouts will participate in interactive and immersive programs, visit museum exhibitions, and explore the historic site, including the King’s Garden, Carillon Battlefield Hiking Trail, and the Heroic Corn Maze.

During this year’s Girl Scout Day, the scouts will discover the story of British and German troops at Ticonderoga during the year 1777. While interacting with these soldiers, scouts will learn what life was like at Ticonderoga during the American Revolution and will gain a deeper understanding of struggle for independence, the economy and trade in the 18th century, and daily life of the soldiers and their families that garrisoned Fort Ticonderoga.018

“Special guided tours and museum exhibitions will immerse the scouts in Fort Ticonderoga’s epic history, “said Rich Strum, Director of Education. “The visit will include the historic trades shops, where they will learn about key skills that were essential for keeping an army clothed, fed, and prepared.”

Weapons Demonstrations, Museum Exhibits, Historic Trades, & the King’s Garden!

Thrill at the flash of musketry and roar of cannon fire during weapons demonstrations; guided tours will highlight Fort Ticonderoga’s epic story in the 18th century; interactive programs in historic trades including shoe making, carpentry, and tailoring, will give the scouts an active understanding of the work required to maintain an army and fight the Revolution!

Special resizedprograms take place in the historic trades shops at 10:30am, 12:30pm, 1:00pm and 2:30pm. At noon, discover the process of feeding the troops as the mid-day meal is prepared.

Visit the King’s Garden to discover what was grown to feed the troops and dig into centuries of horticulture history! For the Girl Scouts artistically inclined, “Watercolors in the Garden” will be offered at 11:00am, 1:00pm, and 3:00pm.

The Heroic Corn Maze: A Corn Maze Adventure!

While in the King’s Garden area, be sure to explore a new 2016 design in the six-acre Heroic Maze, a corn maze designed in the shape of Fort Ticonderoga! Answer clues connected to Fort Ticonderoga’s history as you find your way through winding stalks of corn! The Heroic Corn Maze will be open from 10:00am-4:00pm.

To register your Girl Scout troop to participate, email Fort Ticonderoga’s Group Tour Coordinator at, or call the business office at (518) 585-2821.

The cost is $7 per scout; $14 for adult leaders and chaperones.

To learn more about programs for scout groups at Fort Ticonderoga, visit and select the “Education” tab and select “Scouting” on the drop-down menu.

America’s Fort is a registered trademark of the Fort Ticonderoga Association.

Photo: Girl Scout Day at Fort Ticonderoga takes place on October 15, 2016. Photo credit: Fort Ticonderoga.

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Fort Ticonderoga recently announced that Mary Ellen Ellithorpe (Em) of Putnam, NY, has received the 2016 Fort Ticonderoga Volunteer of the Year award in recognition of her dedicated service to Fort Ticonderoga. Em gave tirelessly of her time and energy this past summer implementing a survey with guests. Collecting hundreds of surveys, Em logged in nearly 30 hours as part of this project and other volunteer activity. Her smiling face and pleasant approach encouraged our visitors to share their thoughts on our exhibits and presentation of Ticonderoga’s big guns.

In addition to the survey, Em volunteered in other areas of operations including development, special events, and education. She plans to continue her volunteer work during the winter months in our Collection’s Department where she will assist in cataloging.

“Em’s support and assistance at Fort Ticonderoga has had a substantial impact on our organization,” said Beth Hill, President and CEO. “Her enthusiasm for Fort Ticonderoga’s mission and programs is contagious and enabled the surveying process to exceed our expectations. Through her work, we were able to track important data that will help drive our decisions for future exhibitions and related programs. We are very grateful to her for her service.”

Other volunteer recognition:

Papercut Award: Frank Schlamp for his unwavering volunteer support for collections and for creating an index for hundreds of pages of institutional scrapbooks, as well as his leadership in organizing and documenting our archeological collections.

Thompson-Pell Award: Carl Crego for his scholarship and organizing and processing the Thompson and Pell archives, and for his support in procuring archival supplies.

Q-Tip Award: Bonnie Sheeley for her determination, dedication, and donation of thousands of specialty Q-tips to clean the Ethan Allen statue using conservation appropriate methods.

Spreading the Beauty Award: Betty Rettig for her time in the King’s Garden cutting the beautiful flowers and creating splendid bouquets that welcome guests, and enhance our many events.

The Three MUSKETeers Award: Jim Beaty, Doug Chase, and Jim O’Toole who love Fort Ticonderoga, the guns, and always make a big booming effort to raise awareness and support.

The Volunteer of the Year Award along with several other volunteer related awards were presented at Fort Ticonderoga’s Annual Volunteer Appreciation Reception on September 29th.

Fort Ticonderoga volunteers have given nearly 9,000 hours so far in 2016 in areas including interpretation, horticulture, education, development, collections, exhibitions, and buildings and grounds. New volunteers are welcome to apply to the program which offers numerous and enriching volunteer opportunities. Volunteer information and applications are available on Fort Ticonderoga’s website at or by calling 518-585-2821.

America’s Fort is a registered trademark of the Fort Ticonderoga Association.

Photo: Mary Ellen Ellithorpe (Em) of Putnam, NY, received the 2016 Fort Ticonderoga Volunteer of the Year award in recognition of her dedicated service to Fort Ticonderoga. Photographed (L-R) Beth Hill, Fort Ticonderoga President and CEO; Em Ellithorpe, 2016 Volunteer of the Year; Matthew Keagle, Fort Ticonderoga Curator of Collections. Photo credit Fort Ticonderoga.

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bulletinAfter a 15-year hiatus, The Bulletin of the Fort Ticonderoga Museum returns in print with an issue focused on “1777: The American Revolution on the Northern Frontier.” The Bulletin, published for over seventy years, helped the Fort Ticonderoga Museum achieve an international reputation for original scholarship and research. Today, the rebirth of the Bulletin complements Fort Ticonderoga’s scholarly work in restoration, interpretation, collections, and educational programming.  Copies are available for purchase at the Fort Ticonderoga Museum Store and online at

“It is with great honor and enthusiasm that Fort Ticonderoga re-launches The Bulletin of the Fort Ticonderoga Museum,” said Beth Hill, Fort Ticonderoga President and CEO.  “Museum co-founder, Stephen H. P. Pell inaugurated the Bulletin in 1927, and after a 15-year hiatus his scholarly vision for our institution is once again being realized.  The journal will engage the next generation of scholars, museum professionals, educators, and history enthusiasts with new documentation that will continue to add depth to our understanding of our past, informed by our rich museum collections, research initiatives, and academic partnerships.”

The current issue relates to the Northern Campaign of 1777. Feature guest contributor for this production is Eric Schnitzer, Historian and Park Ranger at Saratoga National Historical Park. In his article “Cook’s and Latimer’s Connecticut Militia Battalions in the Northern Campaign of 1777,” Schnitzer explores the composition and contributions of these units to the ultimate success of the Continental efforts to stop British General John Burgoyne’s invasion from Canada.

Additional articles include: “Philip Skene of Skenesborough: Selected transcriptions of a local Loyalist” by Heather M. Haley. 2015 Edward W. Pell Graduate Fellow in Education, Heather Haley provides an overview of the Skene collection, a biographical overview of Philip Skene, and transcriptions of select documents in the collection; “French Canadian Laborers in the 1777 Norther Campaign” by Richard Tomczak. 2015 Edward W. Pell Graduate Fellow in Interpretation, Richard Tomczak delves into the French-Canadian Corvée system as adapted by Governor Guy Carleton and General John Burgoyne during the 1777 campaign; and  “The Curious Long Land Muskets of the British 53rd Regiment” by Bill Ahearn. Long-time collector Bill Ahearn explores the history of three muskets of the 53rd Regiment now in the collection of Fort Ticonderoga.

America’s Fort is a registered trademark of the Fort Ticonderoga Association.

Photo: The Bulletin of the Fort Ticonderoga Museum returns in print with an issue focused on 1777. 

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Fort Ticonderoga Receives Prestigious National Grant

Fort Ticonderoga has been awarded a prestigious national grant of $147,006 from the Institute of Museum and Library Services: Museums for America for a fifteen-month project to inventory, catalog, assess conservation needs, and re-house thousands of internationally significant collection items. These objects will be moved from the unsuitable environment to a modern, climate-controlled, storage facility.

Some of the most important subsets of theimls-grant-image-pr archaeological collections included in this project are the 18th-century entrenching tools. Over 500 shovels, spades, billhooks, hammers, picks, and mattocks have been assembled as a result of Fort Ticonderoga’s restoration in the early 20th century, and chart the range of techniques used to fabricate structures in France, Britain, and North America. These tools represent the largest assemblage of 18th-century entrenching tools in the United States. As part of the grant project, professional conservators will visit the museum to produce a conservation assessment of this singular collection.

“The generous funding from the Institute of Museum and Library Services: Museums for America (IMLS) grant will completely transform our collections program,” said Miranda Peters, Fort Ticonderoga Collections Manager. “This project will ensure the preservation, documentation, and physical control over the historically significant and irreplaceable archaeological objects that were discovered on-site in the early 20th century, along with early institutional records and collections that are currently housed in an unsuitable environment.”

The IMLS project will support Fort Ticonderoga’s experiential and learner-driven approach to preservation and programming by supporting several strategic plan long-range goals, including: developing a conservation and preservation plan for our archaeological collection, expanding exhibitions-focused and collections management staff, creating a long-term plan for appropriate storage in an updated storage facility, providing better storage, management, and accessibility to our renowned collections, and finally to update the information the museum has surrounding the collections and import it into museum collection management software.

This project will span from October 2016 through December 2017 and will support four temporary collections staff positions.

This was made possible in part by the Institute of Museum and Library Services, grant # MA-30-16-0178-16.

About IMLS

The Institute of Museum and Library Services is the primary source of federal support for the nation’s 123,000 libraries and 35,000 museums. Our mission is to inspire libraries and museums to advance innovation, lifelong learning, and cultural and civic engagement. Our grant making, policy development, and research help libraries and museums deliver valuable services that make it possible for communities and individuals to thrive. To learn more, visit and follow IMLS on Facebook and Twitter.


America’s Fort is a registered trademark of the Fort Ticonderoga Association.

Photo: Humble tools like picks and hoes were among the most important weapons soldiers used in the 18th century. They were used to build defenses to protect troops from attack. These tools are just a sample of the hundreds Fort Ticonderoga has in its collection. Photo credit: Fort Ticonderoga

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Inquiry at Fort Ticonderoga: Helping Students Develop Historical Thinking Skills

Across the United States, Social Studies educators are picking up a new tool for use in their classroom. A new set of standards published in 2013 is the C3 Framework for Social Studies. This Framework creation was coordinated by the National Council for Social Studies and over 3,000 teachers and educators provided input. The main goal of the C3 Framework is to ensure that Social Studies education teaches historical thinking, and the studying of history as a process, rather than a string of names and dates. c3

At the heart of the C3 Framework is the Inquiry Design Model, a tool for teaching Social Studies that starts with a compelling question and four supporting questions. Students are guided to answer these questions by analyzing primary and secondary sources, forming conclusions, and completing a summative performance task using evidence to support their argument. The goal is that by starting with intellectually rigorous and compelling questions, and facilitating student use of documents, students develop historical thinking skills.

New York State has taken an exciting lead in developing Inquiries for use in classrooms. Professors at SUNY Binghamton, in concert with teachers around the state, developed the New York State Social Studies Toolkit, containing 6 inquiries for each grade level from Kindergarten through 12th Grade. Teachers have also been developing new inquiries, and adapting the original inquiries for their classroom.

Here at Fort Ticonderoga, we’ve been observing this exciting trend in education, and wanted to make sure that teachers using the inquiry model could use it to teach about Fort Ticonderoga. Liz Scully, our 2016 Edward W. Pell Education Fellow, developed an inquiry based on Fort Ticonderoga. The inquiry is written for 4th Grade students, and highlights resources onsite here at Fort Ticonderoga and in our collection. The compelling question Liz developed is: “How was Fort Ticonderoga a Crucial Part of the Northern Campaign during the American Revolution?  cover-of-inquiry

“ To answer this question, students are provided with documents, maps, and high quality images of artifacts in the collections at Fort Ticonderoga, and asked to make an argument support by evidence.

Are you curious as to how the inquiry model works? Let’s delve deeper by looking at one of the 4 supporting questions in our inquiry, and how students use it in the classroom.


“How was the Battle of Valcour Island important for the Americans during the Revolutionary War?”

Teachers can provide background information including secondary sources to give an overview of the work done at Ticonderoga and on the south end of Lake Champlain to build the American fleet. Students will have access to several maps and primary sources, including this one from James Murray Hadden’s Journal. Hadden was a British lieutenant with Burgoyne’s forces in 1776. Of the Battle of Valcour, Hadden writes:

Arnold ran his own vessels & 5 others on shore and set fire to them, the three foremost only escaped to Tyconderoga; as did Gen’l Arnold with most of the Crew’s of the burnt Vessels…It appearing too late in the Season for an attack on Tyconderoga 16 miles from hence.”

For Students in 4th Grade, this may be their first time encountering primary sources, so Liz deliberately used succinct sources that are more similar to modern English. Students will have an image of a watercolor in our collection, which highlights the battle at Valcour Island and the ships involved.   god-bless-our-armesThis prompts a discussion of the origin of these ships. Where did they come from? Who built them, and who sailed them? Who fought aboard them? How did a fledgling country build a navy that managed to outrun the more experienced, better equipped British army which had them thoroughly outgunned? Students can explore these questions in the classroom and also by visiting Fort Ticonderoga. Important artifacts and exhibits provide information on the Battle of Valcour and the American Fleet built at the south end of Lake Champlain.

It is our hope that by creating resources in keeping with current best practices in Social Studies, teachers will have assistance in teaching about Fort Ticonderoga and its place in our history.

To view this important resource, click here.

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Celebrate Fall at Fort Ticonderoga’s Heritage, Harvest, & Horse Festival, October 1st!


Join Fort Ticonderoga to celebrate the sights, sounds, and tastes of fall on Saturday, October 1, 2016Bring the whole family to the Heritage, Harvest & Horse Festival for a full day of autumn fun, set in the midst of the King’s Garden heirloom apple trees and the beautiful Adirondack landscape! Experience the power and thunder of hooves through demonstrations of equestrian sports; take part in family-fun activities including horse-drawn wagon rides and heritage games; take a guided tour of the historic gardens; meet friendly goats and chickens; delight your taste buds with Adirondack beer and wines; explore the lively and colorful harvest market; take a family trip through the six-acre corn maze; enjoy centuries of stories from the water on a Carillon boat cruise; and explore the fall splendor of Fort Ticonderoga’s historical museum site located on Lake Champlain and nestled between the Adirondack and Green Mountains.

Admission to the Heritage, Harvest & Horse Festival is included with a Fort Ticonderoga general admission ticket. Fort Ticonderoga is open from 9:30 am until 5:00 pm daily. For a complete event schedule, please visit

“Localvore” Food, Wine Tastings, Live Music, Wagon Rides and More!

Festival featured activities include: live music; delicious “localvore” food including homemade jams, jellies, and pies; Adirondack beer and wines; the Annual Vegetable, Seed, and Plant Sale; a Harvest Market featuring locally grown and made products including; artisanal cheese, hand-woven baskets, perennials and mums, produce, maple syrup, honey, apple products, and more!

Children Activities

Kids of all ages will love the festival fall activities including face painting, creating a customized leaf book, sack races, colonial kids’ games, pumpkin painting, nature scavenger hunt, horse-drawn carriage rides, and the six-acre Heroic Corn Maze: A Corn Maze Adventure!

Horse Presentations

From the story of the Revolutionary War to the Civil War in the Champlain Valley, discover the important role horses played in our history. From war horses to hunting, follow the cry of the hounds from the King’s Garden to learn more about the sport of Foxhunting with the Green Mountain Hounds.

Heroic Corn Maze: A Corn Maze Adventure!

The day will not be complete without a visit to Fort Ticonderoga’s highly acclaimed Heroic Corn Maze: A Corn Maze Adventure!, where visitors explore the six-acre corn maze, designed in the shape of the fort, with a new design for the 2016 season! Guests are able to find their way through the maze by selecting the correct answers to clues connected to Fort Ticonderoga’s history!

Carillon Boat Cruise at 1:30 pm and 4:00 pm!

Make reservations today for an unforgettable water-level perspective of Fort Ticonderoga on a Carillon boat tour! The 60-foot, 35-passenger vessel will offer a special tour around the Ticonderoga Peninsula at 1:30 pm and again at 4:00 pm. In 90 minutes, you can enjoy centuries of stories that floated across Lake Champlain. This tour will explore not only the epic 18th-century military stories, but also the maritime heritage of the 19th and 20th century. To make your reservation, call (518) 585-2821.

America’s Fort is a registered trademark of the Fort Ticonderoga Association.

Photo: Fort Ticonderoga’s Heritage Harvest and Horse Festival takes place on October 1, 2016. Photo credit: Fort Ticonderoga.

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Fall Rose Care

By Dr. Leonard Perry, Horticulturalist in Residence


Photo courtesy: Ariannah Perry

Do you have some roses that you would like to have survive the upcoming winter, if at all possible, and particularly if new plantings?  Or, are you one of those who had roses going into last winter, only to have many die while those of your neighbor lived?  If either of these fits, you might consider mulching and mounding this fall as is done in the King’s Garden.

A mulch will not only keep the soil warmer than unmulched soil, but also will prevent rapid fluctuations in soil temperatures which lead to soil heaving.  Snow is the best mulch but, as we know, cannot always be counted on.  So other materials must be used.

A good mulch will settle lightly on the soil surface without excessive packing (this rules out most oak leaves), cause no harmful effects (such as from diseases or weed seeds), and be reasonably attractive and priced.  Mulches derived from plants also add organic matter to the soil.  Examples of good organic mulches are peat moss, weed-free straw (not hay, which is often weedy), cut evergreen branches, bark mulch, or wood chips.

Mulches should be piled at least a foot deep around plants, and not before mid-November, as roses need cool fall temperatures to develop some winter hardiness.  Mulch much later and you may have to contend with snow first, and valuable ground heat will have been lost.
Mounding also may be used to protect roses during winter, simply mounding loose soil or compost a foot or more high around the base of the plant.  Use loose sandy or loamy soil, as dense clay soil may cut off the oxygen supply to the roots, resulting in injured or dead plants. Mounding is preferable over mulches if you have mice that may live in organic material and chew on the rose stems over winter.

Climbing roses may be protected by removing the canes from their supports (keep this in mind in the spring when tying them up, for easy fall removal), then laying them on the ground.  Use a wire hoop or similar device to hold them in place.  Lay a piece of burlap over the canes to protect them during the spring uncovering operation, then mound soil or compost or organic matter over the canes.  Uncover the canes when they begin to grow in spring, checking them in early April or shortly after the snow melts.

Mulching or mounding protects roses in a couple of ways.  Roses vary greatly in their hardiness, depending on species and cultivars, with the more hardy not even needing protection.  You may find a list of some of these on my Perry’s Perennial Pages website of past

Vermont rose hardiness trials (  There, also, you’ll find a leaflet on some of the heirloom or old-fashioned species roses (  Some of these rose species are much hardier than many of the modern hybrids.

Most roses also are grafted onto a hardier wild rose “understock.”   Where they meet—the graft union– is the swollen area you can find at the base of many rose plants.  It is often tender and susceptible to winter injury, so needs protection.  Many recommend to even bury this graft union below the surface when planting, which also will help prevent undesirable sucker canes arising from the wild rose understock.

Before mulching or mounding roses in mid to late November, finish fall cleanup.  Remove all plant debris and diseased parts.  Pruning, although usually done in spring, may be done now to remove diseased or dead stems and to make the plant easier to mulch.  Even with protection, canes may have some dieback and need further pruning in the spring.

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