Ordered to Join the Northern Army in Canada Living History Event at Fort Ticonderoga March 24

Reenactors in FormationJoin Fort Ticonderoga for a one-day living history event Saturday, March 24, 2018 to meet new recruits and veteran troops from New York as they prepare to join the ongoing Continental Army campaign against Canada in the spring of 1776. Living history demonstrations throughout the day feature the weapons, tactics, trades, and people needed for fighting and surviving in the Continental Army’s Northern Department. For more information, call 518-585-2821 or visit www.fortticonderoga.org.

Highlighted programming throughout the day brings to life the struggle to keep an American army alive in March of 1776. Meet the reinforcements headed for northern forts and Canada as they drill to defend Ticonderoga as a vital and strategic link in the military supply chain. Walk alongside powerful oxen as they haul logs miles from the woods surrounding Ticonderoga. Listen as leather heels strike the ground as soldiers march in step and see artillery artificers cast and cut metal to make cannon ammunition. Watch the carpenters, drafted from among soldiers, hard at work as they turn logs and lumber into crates, sleds, and beams.

“This living history event will highlight the story of the struggle for liberty in the first full year of the war for American Independence,” said Beth Hill, President & CEO. “Our commitment to bringing the dramatic and real story of our past to life through unforgettable programs such as the Ordered to Join the Northern Army in Canada living history event is an opportunity to share with our visitors the importance of Ticonderoga in the founding of America.”

Admission to the event is $12 for the general public and free to Fort Ticonderoga Members, Ambassador Pass holders, and children age four and under.

America’s Fort is a registered trademark of the Fort Ticonderoga Association.

Photo: Join Fort Ticonderoga on Saturday, March 24 for the Ordered the Join the Northern Army in Canada living history event from 10:00 am – 4:00 pm. Photo credit Fort Ticonderoga.

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March Fort Fever Program Part of National Women’s History Month Celebration “Sarah Pell and her Struggle for History & Human Rights”

Sarah Pell showing leadershipFort Ticonderoga’s “Fort Fever Series” continues on Sunday, March 11, at 2:00 p.m. with a program on “A ‘Charmingly Aggressive Woman’ Sarah Pell’s Struggle for History & Human Rights” presented by Miranda Peters, Fort Ticonderoga’s Director of Collections. During this program, explore images, archival materials, and collections never before seen by the public, and recently cataloged by museum staff that reveal glimpses of Sarah Pell’s impactful work. This program is part of the National Women’s History Month celebration.

“Sarah was a strong woman who advocated for civic duty, preservation, and the many layered stories here at Ticonderoga,” said Miranda Peters, Director of Collections. “Ticonderoga museum staff have recently rediscovered hundreds of photographs, pieces of correspondence, and objects connecting us to Sarah and her remarkable story in new ways.”

Described by a contemporary as a “charmingly aggressive woman,” most early newspapers identified Sarah as a prime mover behind Fort Ticonderoga’s restoration in the early 20th century. She believed strongly in the value of preserving the past for the benefit of the future. In addition to her work with the museum, Sarah was active in restoring the Pavilion into a summer home, developing the King’s Garden, and was a tireless advocate for women’s rights. Although engaged with the suffrage movements across the Atlantic as early as 1913, it was later in her life that she became the most deeply engaged. Sarah joined the National Woman’s Party (NWP) in the 1920s, setting it on the path of financial stability, and become the NWP National Chair in 1936, where she picked up the work left after suffrage was achieved. During her tenure, she reintroduced the Equal Rights Amendment written by Alice Paul in 1923, who had visited the Pavilion at NWP events in Ticonderoga.

Tickets for the Fort Fever program are $12 per person and can be purchased at the door; Fort Ticonderoga Members and Ticonderoga Ambassador Pass holders are admitted free of cost. The program will take place in the Mars Education Center.

A new exhibit at the Mars Education Center focuses on Sarah’s pioneering role in historical preservation and women’s rights to learn how the past informs our work in the present, and the layers of history that can be uncovered here at Ticonderoga. https://www.fortticonderoga.org/visit/museum-exhibit/Sarah-Pell

America’s Fort is a registered trademark of the Fort Ticonderoga Association.

Photo: “Mrs. Pell, President Taft, A. C. Bossom” July 6, 1909. Fort Ticonderoga Museum.

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Happy Birthday George Washington! First President and Ticonderoga’s First Tourist

Portrait of George Washington part of Fort Ticonderoga Museum Collections.

This portrait by Charles Peale Polk int he Fort Ticonderoga Museum Collections was painted at the height of Washington’s popularity in the late 1790’s, depicting him as the hero of the Battle of Princeton. Copyright Fort Ticonderoga. Photo Credit Gavin Ashworth.

Today marks the 286th birthday of George Washington. At the time of his death in 1799, he was lauded as “First in War, First in Peace, and First in the Hearts of His Countryman” by Henry “Light Horse Harry” Lee. George Washington was Ticonderoga’s first tourist and visited the abandoned Fort Ticonderoga in 1783, while waiting for definitive peace to be signed that would acknowledge the Independence of the United States.

Washington’s military career stretched from the French & Indian War in 1754 through his relinquishing of command of the Continental Army in December 1783. Throughout the early years of the Revolution Washington was concerned with the defenses at Ticonderoga.

As an example, Washington writes from New York to General Philip Schuyler on June 9, 1776:

It is not in my power to spare any more men from hence, either for the communication, or to assist in repairing Ticonderoga. The detachments already gone to Canada have weakened the forces necessary for the defence of this place, considering its importance more, perhaps, than policy will justify. . . .
I esteem it a matter of importance not only to fortify and secure Ticonderoga, but every other post on the communication; and that you should garrison them with men under judicious and spirited officers, to be fixed there, who might be called to account for misconduct, which is difficult to do where they are shifting and changing continually, and who would esteem it their indispensable duty to carry on and maintain the works against any surprises or attacks tha may be attempted. I have written to Congress to appoint Engineers, if they can fix upon proper persons for the office. If you know of any, you had better employ them. I am confident Congress will allow them the usual pay.

General Washington finally visited Fort Ticonderoga in July 1783 while awaiting the official cessation of hostilities with Great Britain. Washington wrote the President of Congress that:

In most disagreeable circumstances here, anxiously expecting the Definitive Treaty without command and with little else to do than to be teazed with troublesome Applications and fruitless demands…I have resolved to wear away a little time in Performing a Tour to the Northward as far north as Tyconderoga and Crown Point and perhaps as far up the Mohawk River as Fort Schuyler. I shall leave this place on Friday next and shall probably be gone about two weeks.

Washington also wrote to General Philip Schuyler the previous day:

 I have always entertained a great desire to see the northern part of this State before I return to the Southward. The present irksome interval while we are waiting for the definitive Treaty affords an opportunity of gratifying this inclusion. We shall set out by water on 18 July.

It would be his only visit to Ticonderoga, though it was a place frequently on his mind in the early years of the Revolution from 1775 to 1777.

What little we know about Washington’s actual visit comes from the Journal of Count Francesco dal Verme, an Italian from Milan who traveled with Washington. Washington’s party of 39 people, including 18 armed soldiers, traveled the length of Lake George on July 22, spending the night at the Lake George landing “under the tents.” Of Lake George, dal Verme noted:

 Not one house did we see during the entire day, but we did sight about seventy islands and rocks all covered with very fine trees.

Washington’s party visited Ticonderoga on July 23 before continuing to Crown Point. More interested in the rattlesnake the party encountered, dal Verme only discusses what was left of the extensive defenses in one sentence and attributes them all to the English rather than the Continental army.

Breakfasted on fish. Had two boats transported overland (2 miles) to place on Lake Champlain. Went ashore to see Ticonderoga where there are remnants of the English defenses of the War of 1754. We killed a snake here nine feet long and four inches in diameter called a Ratel-snake, which has a link of concentric horn rings–in this case six inches long–on the tail with which it makes a great noise. 

Washington’s travels took him as far north as Crown Point and then as far up the Mohawk River as Fort Schuyler (Fort Stanwix). Washington was back with the army at New Windsor two weeks later. The Treaty of Paris ending the war was signed in September and by late November, Washington entered New York City as the British Army evacuated the city.

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Love and Friendship in Peace and War

Tankard owned by Alexander Hamilton. Fort Ticonderoga Museum, 1943.1.1

Let us begin with a heart . The image of a heart is a common symbol of love and affection. Modern connotations of love are by no means implied by its use in 18th century artifacts, where hearts can be found from the silver hilts of swords to the skirts of soldiers’ uniforms. This particular heart motif is mounted to the terminal of a handle on a silver tankard. Although made in London in 1762, this tankard was later engraved with the date 1800 and the initials “AH” for its owner: Alexander Hamilton.

Hamilton has his own love story, one filled with passion, infidelity, and reconciliation. The tankard was acquired by the Fort Ticonderoga Museum in 1943, purchased from Hamilton’s great-great-Nephew, Schuyler Hamilton. Within two years of acquiring this tankard, Hamilton moved into the Grange, his Federal style home located in what was at the time the countryside far from the city of New York (today roughly 143rd St.). Across the street, Hamilton had an unlikely neighbor and friend with his own remarkable love story that connects back to Fort Ticonderoga’s collections.

Lieutenant Jacob Schieffelin. This portrait was likely painted in the 1800s, and copied from an 18th-century miniature of Jacob wearing the coat pictured. Fort Ticonderoga Museum, PEM 87.

The scarlet uniform coat of Lieutenant Jacob Schieffelin would not be the place to look for a love story, nor a connection to Alexander Hamilton, but love has its own trajectory that often defies logic. Schieffelin’s parents emigrated to Philadelphia from Germany, where he was born in 1757. At the age of three, they moved to the newly conquered colony of Canada. They settled in Montreal, but in his late teens, Schieffelin moved west to Detroit. As the American Revolution unfolded, he became an officer of a loyalist militia known as the Detroit Volunteers. In 1778, he was deployed even further west to Fort Sackville in Vincennes, Indiana.

The following year, Virginia forces captured Schieffelin. Now a prisoner, he was forced on an epic march from Vincennes to modern Louisville, Kentucky, then up the Ohio River, and across Virginia to the capital of Williamsburg, where he was thrown in the common jail and underwent seven months of confinement before he finally escaped. He crossed the Chesapeake Bay and went into hiding for over two months until he could find a ship to take him to British-held New York.

Lieutenant Jacob Schieffelin’s uniform coat. c.1783-4. Fort Ticonderoga Museum, UN-021.

Hannah Lawrence was born to a Quaker family in New York, which boasted a diverse population, even in the 18th century. Armed with a clever wit, she responded to the British occupation of her hometown during the Revolution by mocking the pretensions and foibles of the British officers in verse. She went so far as to secretly broadcast her poems in front of Trinity Church, causing a scene when they were discovered. In late August 1780, Lawrence the pacifist, Quaker, and poet, met the recently escaped, German-American, Loyalist officer who was billeted in her parent’s home.  The feelings between Schieffelin and Lawrence were strong enough that by the end of August, against the wishes of her church and family, the two were married.

Within a month of their marriage, this unlikely pair departed New York for Canada. The voyage of seven months took them around the Atlantic coast, down the St. Lawrence River, and eventually back to Detroit. Along the way they met and mingled with the whole cast of the Revolutionary period in Canada and the Great Lakes. It was probably towards the end of the war that Schieffelin had this scarlet Lieutenant’s uniform made, serving as an officer of the British Indian Department. The end of the war in 1783 brought great change. Schieffelin maintained connections with Lawrence’s family, after years in Montreal and London, Schieffelin and Lawrence returned to New York, where Schieffelin collaborated with Lawrence’s brother to run the family’s apothecary business. Remarkably now a citizen of the nation he had fought against, Schieffelin ran the business through his death in 1835. The business survives today as an importer of wines and spirits.

Schieffelin sold Alexander Hamilton half of a plot of land in upper Manhattan, where they both eventually built their country homes. The ties between the Schieffelins’ and the Hamiltons’ went deeper than real estate, they became friends. Lawrence was an abolitionist as was Hamilton, and the Schieffelins’ worshiped with Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton, Alexander’s widow after his death in 1804. Their stories suggest how the diverse experience of Americans helped to shape this country from its beginning, how former enemies can make peace, and how love is often found in the most unlikely places. All this from a cup and a coat.

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Garden and Landscape Symposium 2018

By Dr. Leonard Perry, Horticulturist in Residence

Join Fort Ticonderoga and the King’s Garden for the Seventh Annual Garden and Landscape Symposium on Saturday, April 7, 2018. Geared towards both beginning and experienced gardeners, this daylong symposium provides helpful insights from garden experts who live and garden in upstate New York and northern New England. The event is open by pre-registration only.

Focusing on easy-to-implement strategies for expanding and improving your garden or landscape, these programs are offered in an informal setting that encourages interaction between presenters and attendees.

Charlie Nardozzi

Many in the area already know Charlie Nardozzi — an award winning, nationally recognized garden author, speaker, garden tour leader, radio, and TV personality based in Vermont. He will speak on Better Berries for Your Edible Landscape. Growing berry shrubs has become more popular with the interest in edible landscaping and breeding of small shrubs that fit easily in a small yard and are easy to maintain. He will talk about new varieties of blueberries, brambles, honeyberries, currants, gooseberries, elderberries and more that grow well in our climate. In addition, Charlie will go over how to grow and care for these berries to produce a bountiful harvest and look great in the yard. Charlie makes gardening information simple, easy, fun and accessible to everyone. You can learn more about him, and receive his monthly newsletters from his website at gardeningwithcharlie.com.

A true kitchen garden opens your senses both in the garden and in the kitchen, and in this presentation—The Art of Growing Food-– you will learn the six steps to successful kitchen garden design, based on classic techniques that anyone can follow. Discover how to grow an edible garden with an eye towards beauty, easy care and pleasure. Ellen Ecker Ogden is the author of The Complete Kitchen Garden, and other books. In this book, you will find 15 theme gardens, such as the salad lover’s garden, complete with color diagrams and a listing of suggested varieties.  Following each plan are recipes for using the produce from that particular garden.  Also in the book are many design ideas and illustrations for inspiration.

Ellen is the founder of The Cook’s Garden seed catalog, and her kitchen garden designs and articles have been featured in numerous national magazines. You can find more ideas through her website and blog by visiting ellenogden.com.

Emily DeBolt

Learn about the benefits and beauty of gardening with native plants with Emily DeBolt, owner of Fiddlehead Creek Native Plant Nursery. In her presentation–  Go Native: An Introduction to Gardening with Native Plants – you will discover which plants are great for monarchs and other pollinators and which plants can grow in tough sites such as clay soils or dry shade. Emily will introduce some of the native plants available for gardening, the benefits of gardening with natives, and share some of her favorite natives from her own gardens. Emily has years of experience working with natives as alternatives to invasives, as well as natives for rain gardens, pollinator gardens, shoreline buffers, and more. Emily and her husband Chris started Fiddlehead Creek Nursery in Fort Ann, New York in 2009 because of her love for native plants and her desire to make them more available in everyday landscapes (fiddleheadcreek.com).

Barry Genzlinger

Bats are an important part of our ecosystems and are huge catchers of insects. Yet in recent years, their numbers have been threatened by several causes. What are the ten facts that everyone should know about bats and why should gardeners care? In Ten Things Everyone Should Know about Bats, Vermont’s only licensed bat rehabilitator and president of the Vermont Bat Center will share the fascinating world of bats, their amazing abilities, the danger bats now face from an invasion, the consequences of the declining bat populations, and how you can help them. Barry Genzlinger has been a bat advocate since 1995, has made over 4,000 bat houses, worked with the Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department since the early 2000s, and has rescued, rehabilitated, and released hundreds of Vermont bats (vermontbatcenter.org).

There will be time for you to meet with other gardeners, have questions answered by speakers, buy books and have them signed, and tour Fort Ticonderoga’s King’s Garden at the end of the symposium with Stuart Lilie, Vice President of Public History and Operations. On this tour, you will learn a history of the King’s Garden, and get an update on restoration of the 1826 Pell home, the Pavilion.

A brochure with the complete schedule and registration form is available on Fort Ticonderoga’s website at www.fortticonderoga.org by selecting “Education” and then “Workshops and Seminars” on the drop-down menu. A printed copy is also available upon request by calling 518-585-2821.

The Garden & Landscape Symposium is one of numerous opportunities for continuing education for the public at Fort Ticonderoga in 2018. You can learn more about these programs, including the annual War College of the Seven Years’ War and the Seminar on the American Revolution, by visiting Fort Ticonderoga’s website at www.fortticonderoga.org and selecting “Education.”

America’s Fort is a registered trademark of the Fort Ticonderoga Association.

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Fort Ticonderoga Announces 2018 Annual War College on the Seven Years’ War

Registration is now open for Fort Ticonderoga’s Twenty-Third Annual War College of the Seven Years’ War May 18-20, 2018. With a panel of distinguished historians from across the United States, this seminar focuses on the Seven Years’ War in North America, also known as the French & Indian War. The War College takes place in the Mars Education Center and is open to the public; pre-registration is required.

Begun in 1996, the War College of the Seven Years’ War has become the nation’s premier seminar on the French & Indian War in the United States. It features a mix of new and established scholars in an informal setting for a weekend of presentations related to the military, social, and cultural history of the French & Indian War.

The 2018 speakers include:

  • Alex Burns, West Virginia University, “‘Without god and the King, I never would have lasted so long’: Common Soldiers in the Prussian Army, 1750-1765.”
  • Kyle Dalton, museum professional, “From Braddock to Wolfe: Royal Navy Seamen Ashore in North America.”
  • Cathrine Davis, University of Laval, “Négociants, Artisans, and Prostitutes: Exploring the Origins of French Textiles at Fort Carillon through Lead Seal Analysis.”
  • James Lacey, Marine Corps War College, “William Pitt: Global Strategist.”
  • David Ledoyen and André Gousse, Parks Canada, “Beds, Cabanes, and Hammocks: Where French Soldiers Slept in New France.”
  • Greg Rogers, SUNY Cobleskill, “New France’s ‘Petty Victories’: Everyday Power in the Lake Ontario Borderlands during the Seven Years’ War.”
  • Jobie Turner, United States Airforce, “Conestoga vs. Canoes: Lake George 1755-1759.”
  • Richard Weyhing, SUNY Oswego, “The Warrior and the Carpenter: Two Perspectives on the Siege of Oswego, 1756.”

The War College will also feature a Saturday evening lecture and concert “From the Ballroom to the Battlefield: Popular Music Adapted for Military Use during the French & Indian War.” Erik Lichack, a performer of early American music, is joined by musicians Eliza Vincz and Philip Winter, to present a lively performance that showcases the relationship between functional military tunes and songs, dances, and other pieces enjoyed by the English-speaking world.

A reception on Friday evening includes the opening of the new exhibition “Great Wars: Ticonderoga and World War One.” This new major exhibit opening in May 2018 will explore the lines between the Seven Years’ War and World War One through the story of Fort Ticonderoga’s Museum Founder, Stephen Pell.

Sunday’s sessions conclude with an optional boat cruise aboard the Carillon to explore naval aspects of the fight for Ticonderoga from 1756-59. Space is limited and available on a first-come, first-served basis to War College participants.

Registration for the War College is now open at $155 ($130 for those registering by March 15); additional discounts available for Members of Fort Ticonderoga. Registration forms can be downloaded from Fort Ticonderoga’s website at www.fortticonderoga.org under the “Education” tab by selecting “Workshops and Seminars” on the drop down menu and then clicking on the War College. A printed copy is also available upon request by contacting the Business Office at 518-585-2821.

America’s Fort is a registered trademark of the Fort Ticonderoga Association.

Photo:  Registration is now open for Fort Ticonderoga’s Twenty-Third Annual War College of the Seven Years’ War May 18-20, 2018. Early Bird Registration—with a savings of $25—closes March 15. Register Today! Copyright Fort Ticonderoga, photo credit Carl Heilman II. 

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On the Eve of the Revolution: 1775 British Garrison Living History Event at Fort Ticonderoga February 17

Join Fort Ticonderoga for a one-day living history event Saturday, February 17, 2018 to discover British garrison life in February 1775, three months before Ticonderoga was pulled into the American War of Independence. Living history demonstrations feature the weapons, tactics, trades, and people during peacetime at the fort. For more information, call 518-585-2821 or visit www.fortticonderoga.org

Highlighted programming throughout the day brings to life the routine of soldiers in the 26th Foot and their wives and families who made their homes inside Fort Ticonderoga’s barracks. Weapons demonstrations allow you to go beyond loading and firing to discuss what military traditions remained and what tactical innovations were standard on the eve of the Revolutionary War. Tour through the reconstructed Fort Ticonderoga of today and see what made this much-vaunted fortification so vulnerable to be captured by the Green Mountain Boys in the spring of 1775.

“This living history event will highlight the story of the people that provided the peacetime services and efforts to prepare Ticonderoga for war once again in 1775,” said Beth Hill, President and CEO of Fort Ticonderoga. “Our commitment to bringing the dramatic and real story of our past to life through unforgettable programs such as the 1775 British Garrison at Fort Ticonderoga is an opportunity to share with our visitors the importance of this place in the founding of America.”

Admission to the event is $12 for the general public and free to Fort Ticonderoga Members, Ambassador Pass holders, and children age four and under. For the full event schedule, visit https://www.fortticonderoga.org/events/fort-events/living-history-event-1775-british-garrison/detail.

America’s Fort is a registered trademark of the Fort Ticonderoga Association.

Photo: The 1775 British Garrison at Ticonderoga takes place February 17, 2018 at Fort Ticonderoga. Photo credit: Fort Ticonderoga.

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February’s Fort Fever Program to Focus on Soldiers of Color at Ticonderoga for Black History Month

Fort Ticonderoga’s “Fort Fever Series” continues on Sunday, February 11, at 2:00 p.m. with a program on “Soldiers of Color at Ticonderoga” presented by Stuart Lilie, Vice President of Public History and Operations. During this program, explore the diversity of soldiers who fought at Ticonderoga and examine how attitudes about soldiers of color varied dramatically within the numerous armies and empires that held Ticonderoga. This program is part of the National Black History Month celebration.

The great campaigns of the French & Indian War and Revolutionary War have frequently been envisioned with long battle lines of soldiers as equally white as they were uniform. However, small, but significant numbers of African or African-American soldiers appear in nearly every army that came to Ticonderoga. Differences between the French army and Canadian irregulars or between states of the new United States also played out in different attitudes about soldiers of color in the ranks. Events like the 1757 massacre at Fort William Henry revealed Canadian involvement in the captive and transatlantic slave trade. The presence of African-American soldiers among New England regiments at Ticonderoga was deeply resented by other American officers. Even as the American Army faced a vast British Army in 1777, the removal of these African-American soldiers from the ranks was considered a priority by many officers.

Tickets are $12 per person and can be purchased at the door; Fort Ticonderoga Members and Ticonderoga Ambassador Pass holders are admitted free of cost. The program will take place in the Mars Education Center.

Additional “Fort Fever Series” programs are scheduled on March 11 and April 15. The “Fort Fever Series” is just one of several programs taking place during Winter Quarters at Fort Ticonderoga now through April. Clothing and Accoutrement Workshops are offered March 10-11 and April 14-15. Fort Ticonderoga presents living history events on February 17 (1775 British Garrison at Ticonderoga), and March 24 (Ordered to Join the Northern Army in Canada). The Seventh Annual Garden & Landscape Symposium will be held on April 7. You can learn more about all of these programs by visiting www.fortticonderoga.org. Some programs require advance registration.

America’s Fort is a registered trademark of the Fort Ticonderoga Association.

Photo:  Fort Ticonderoga’s “Fort Fever Series” continues February 11 with a Black History Month program “Soldiers of Color at Ticonderoga.” The Sunday afternoon program begins at 2:00 p.m. and is $12 per person; free for Members of Fort Ticonderoga and Ticonderoga Ambassador Pass holders.

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Flags for the Forts

On November 30, 1776 Ebenezer Stevens, Major of the artillery stationed at Ticonderoga, prepared a return of “Ordnance and Ordnance Stores” wanted by the Northern department. Amongst his requests were two flags or “standards” for the twin citadels of Ticonderoga and Mount Independence. Stevens requested massive flags, easily seen at a distance, measuring 30 by 45 feet—larger than the famous “Star Spangled Banner” that waved over Fort McHenry. Records of supplies issued out to the garrisons in 1777 indicate that two flags were, in fact, provided to the artillery and artificers on February 28, 1777. These flags would have flown over the forts as they prepared for a British attack, driving up the lake from Canada under the command of John Burgoyne. As the British closed in on Ticonderoga, American forces made the decision to abandon the posts. Leaving their flags flying, British forces tore down the American colors and replaced them with their own. General Simon Fraser’s advanced guard raised the colors of the 9th Regiment of Foot over the stone battery at the point of the Ticonderoga peninsula and Mount Independence, while the first flag to fly over the old French fort itself was that of the Brunswick Regiment Prinz Friedrich.

What did these American flags look like?

John Riley’s Powder Horn December 17, 1776 PH-032 Fort Ticonderoga Museum

The clerk recorded the issuance of the flags, but did not provide any details on their appearance. Ebenezer Stevens had requested flags with, “the ground work blue.” Such flags appear to have flown over Fort Ticonderoga in early 1777, and are depicted on a powder horn belonging to Lieutenant John Riley in Fort Ticonderoga’s collection.  Riley was from Wethersfield, Connecticut and served in Colonel Burrall’s Continental Regiment from that state over the winter of 1776-1777. His powder horn, dated December 17, 1776, depicts the works on Mount Independence, where he was stationed, and Ticonderoga. Made before the flags of 1777 were received, flying above what is labeled as “Ty Fort” is a large flag. The flag on Riley’s horn is a plan field, or ground, perhaps meant to depict a blue field as Stevens’ had requested, with the British union flag in the canton.

Bowles’s Universal Display of the Naval Flags of All the Nations in the World. Printed in London, 1779 Catalog #1107 Fort Ticonderoga Museum

It is likely given this illustration and the request from Ebenezer Stevens that the large flags flown at Ticonderoga and Mount Independence in 1776 and early 1777 were similar to that depicted on Riley’s horn. The British union flag, on a field of blue, essentially the same as the British “blue ensign” that is illustrated in Bowles’s Universal Display of the Naval Flags of All the Nations in the World, printed in 1779.  Interestingly enough, one of the colors captured from the 2nd New Hampshire Regiment in July of 1777, also consisted of a blue field, with the British union flag in the canton, although with a regimental emblem at the center. One German account of the fall of Ticonderoga describes two flags, one red and one bearing thirteen red and white stripes, although it is unclear if these were the same that were issued in February. Some version of the blue ensign does seem to have flown at Ticonderoga over its final year in American hands. Hardly a Revolutionary flag, the blue banner suggests the tension that still existed within the new United States between their British heritage and their future as an independent nation.

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Fort Ticonderoga Receives a Forrest E. Mars Jr. Chocolate History Grant to Develop Chocolate Research and Programming in 2018

The Mars Wrigley Confectionery, LLC (MWC) recently awarded Fort Ticonderoga the Forrest E. Mars Jr. Chocolate History Grant for a project entitled A Sea of Chocolate: Cocoa Cargoes in the Anglo Atlantic to research and develop a new program highlighting chocolate consumption and distribution by the British Royal Navy on Lake Champlain. The $10,000 grant supports research on naval history and the transportation of chocolate found in manuscript, archaeological, and object collections. The grant will also fund the development of educational program material to be utilized for student programs and for the general public; and the implementation of the new chocolate maritime initiative in 2018 at Fort Ticonderoga.

“Fort Ticonderoga is extremely grateful to Mars Wrigley Confectionery US, LLC (MWC) and especially the Heritage Chocolate Society established by Forrest E. Mars Jr. for this generous grant,” said Beth L. Hill, Fort Ticonderoga President and CEO.  “Forrest was passionate about chocolate and history. We are so thrilled to have this opportunity to engage our growing audience in the history of chocolate at Ticonderoga and connect its story to the broader Atlantic world in the 18th century. We are committed to partnering with the Heritage Chocolate Society to further study and communicate chocolate’s rich history and its role on past and present cultures.”

During the 1781 Campaign featured in 2018 at Fort Ticonderoga, visitors will discover how chocolate was shipped and prepared for British sailors and soldiers at Ticonderoga. “Being a tropical crop shipped across the ocean, chocolate is an essential tool to express the strategic importance of Ticonderoga along the water corridor of Lake Champlain and the Hudson River in 1781,” said Stuart Lilie, Fort Ticonderoga Vice President of Public History and Operations. “This educational initiative will integrate new research and American Heritage Chocolate produced by Mars Wrigley Confectionery (MWC) into a lively program along the shores of Lake Champlain for students and other visitors alike who will learn about chocolate and the broader network of trade that connected Lake Champlain to the Atlantic world in the 18th century.”

America’s Fort is a registered trademark of the Fort Ticonderoga Association. 

Photo: Fort Ticonderoga recently was awarded a Forrest E. Mars, Jr. Chocolate History Research Grant at the 14th Annual banquet dinner of the Heritage Chocolate Society held at The Kennedy Center in Washington D.C. The Heritage Chocolate Society, formally known as the Colonial Chocolate Society, is a group whose mission is to further the study and communication of chocolate’s rich history and its impact on past and present cultures in the Americas.

Photographed (L-R): Gail Broadright, Director Sponsorships and Family Properties Mars-Wrigley Confectionery; Beth L. Hill, President and CEO, Fort Ticonderoga; Jacqueline Mars;  Stuart Lilie, Vice President of Public History and Operations, For Ticonderoga; Jacomien Mars;  and Berta de Pablos Barbier, President of Mars-Wrigley Confectionery U.S.

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